Making colloidal silver is very easy. Making good quality colloidal silver is much much harder.
All colloidal silver is not the same and the quality will depend a great deal on a large number of variables.
We manufacture what we consider to be the best generators available at any price and these are in stock now.
1. Water Quality
This is where most people fall at the first hurdle. The water has to be steam distilled. All water has impurities that will react with the silver ions as they are produced to create unwanted silver salts. The levels of these impurities are measured using a TDS or Total Dissolved Solids meter. The amount of these impurites can vary dramatically depending on the water type. They are measured in parts per million (PPM) and are a mish mash of different chemicals. Typically calcium carbonate and sodium carbonate form the largest amount of impurites and give the water its hardness. Most water sold for car batteries and irons is now de-ionized rather than distilled and although will usually work (depending on the batch quality and TDS value) but is not food safe and may contain micro-organisms. Steam distilling the water removes any bacteria and other micro-organisms. Nothing should be ever added to the water. No salt, no bi-carbonate of soda, no calcium carbonate, absolutely nothing should be added else you will no longer be making ionic and colloidal silver but instead various silver salts.
Typical impurity counts for different water types
Tap Water 200-500 PPM
Reverse Osmosis 10-20 PPM
Purified/De-ionised 2-10 PPM
Steam Distilled 0-1 PPM
2. Silver Quality
The silver needs to be at least 99.9% and preferably 99.99% silver. Sterling silver is not suitable as it contains almost 8% of copper to give it strength. It is fine to use 99.9% silver for electrodes as the remaining impurities are mainly copper. As you are typically only using 10-20 parts per million of this silver in the final solution, the impurities are 1000 times less than this so are only 10-20 parts per billion of copper in the final solution. This is 100 times less than the safe drinking water limit of 1.3 parts per million for copper. Tap water will typically contain 10-20 parts per billion of copper usually from the pipes in your house. You will see some companies saying that they use 99.997 purity silver but this simply does not exist except in fine guage wire for laboratory use and is just marketing hype. We use 99.99% for our industrial process largely because in ingot sizes, 99.99% is the maximum available and costs the same as 99.9%. In wire sizes, there is a 60% premium for 99.99% so it is up to the user if they think it worth the extra given its minimal advantages. We sell both 99.9% and 99.99% and many commercial manufacturers are happily using 99.9% with no issues. If a seller is offering cheap 99.99% or 99.997% silver then it will actually be 99.9%, they look and behave identically.
3. Generator Type
The generator or Process Controller needs to control the current to a suitable level to produce the optimal particle size. Higher current will produce larger particle that are less effective. Many generators limit the current to 30ma but this is over 10 times too high for optimal particle size on a home sized generator. The ideal generator will limit the current to less that 1ma per square inch of one electrode or up to 2ma with stirring. High currents will give large particle sizes and yellow/cloudy solution, lower current will give a perfectly clear solution.
4. Polarity Reversal
It is important to reverse the polarity regularly during production. This stops debris from forming on the electrodes and falling into the solution. Dynamic polarity reversal will increase the frequency of the reversals as the solution becomes stronger. This is the way we stop electrode fouling on our industrial generators and it works equally well on home units.
By stirring the solution constantly, the ions have less chance to make it across the electrode gap and plate onto the other electrode. This allows higher currents to be used and hence faster production times whilst still retaining optimal particle size.
6. Solution Strength Cutoff
It can take a several hours to produce the best colloidal silver and the ideal time to do this is at night. With an automatic PPM cutoff, the process can be started as you go to bed and you will wake up with the perfect solution at your specified strength. Our generators use a microprocessor, microammeter and use the Faraday equation to ensure the same strength is produced whatever the ambient temperature.
7. Measuring the strength of Colloidal Silver using a TDS Meter.
It would seem logical that the final solution can be measured with a standard TDS meter. However this does not work well at all. TDS meters actually measure the conductivity of the solution and are then scaled to match a known value. For standard TDS meters the chosen calibration solution is sodium chloride at 342PPM. Silver particles on the other hand are separated by distilled water so do not conduct at all and only the ionic content is measureable. The scaling required is different for silver ions than for sodium chloride so it needs to be doubled. For ionic silver, a reading of 5PPM would need to be doubled to equal 10PPM and then add appx 20% for the colloidal content. This is further complicated by the fact that you will hit the saturation limit for ionic silver at between 14PPM and 20PPM depending on temperature after which the reading will become wildly inaccurate. For high colloid ratio colloidal silver the problem is even worse as the ionic silver is converted to particles so will not read at all and any reading obtained will be from the carbohydrate complex redox agent. Bottom line is that if you are making low PPM ionic silver very slowly, it has some limited accuracy but generally is not a good measure. The C-Silver Pro has a built in PPM meter but it is used primarily for distilled water quality checking. A meter calibrated in uS will already be doubling the value from a standard TDS meter so should be left as is.
Suggested conversions values for TDS Meters
TDS Meter Reading ———– Actual PPM
1PPM ———————————- 2.4PPM
2PPM ———————————- 4.8PPM
3PPM ———————————- 7.2PPM
4PPM ———————————- 9.6PPM
5PPM ———————————- 12.0PPM
6PPM ———————————- 14.0PPM ionic saturation point
7PPM ———————————- 16.8PPM post saturation so approx
8PPM ———————————- 19.2PPM correlation getting worse
>8PPM ——————————— ??????? readings unreliable
Most generators that you see advertised lack most if not all of these features and produce very large particles and cloudy solutions. A high quality generator such as the C-Silver Compact or Pro have all these features and more and will produce perfect solutions every single time. All high quality generators, due to the method of production, will produce mainly ionic silver. You can reduce this by adding our carbohydrate complex solution to produce a lovely deep amber at 20ppm (light amber at 10ppm) colloidal solution. This is the preferred way to create a high colloid ratio of optimal particle size. Running a cheap generator at high current will give a high colloid ratio of large useless particles that lack most of the anti-bacterial qualities of the nano particles.
The major difference in commercial versus home production is scale and filtration. Large scale production uses continuous flow electrolysis and post filtration wheras home production will typically batch process using a small 500ml flask and a coffee filter if required. If you take care and follow the above guidelines, there is no reason that you cannot produce colloidal silver as good as many commercial producers.